Welcome to Mr. Guarino's
ElectricityPLTW DE
Project Lead The Way Digital Electronics Class
Website!
Room: B118
Contact Information:
Email: kguarino@pway.org
Phone: 7329810700 ext. 2248
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Welcome to Electricity / PLTW DE
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Classroom Announcements 
Piscataway High School
Electricity
Course Description:
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS (PLTW) SYLLABUS
Course Description:
Digital Electronics ^{TM} is the study of electronic circuits that are used to process and control digital signals. In contrast to analog electronics, where information is represented by a continuously varying voltage, digital signals are represented by two discreet voltages or logic levels. This distinction allows for greater signal speed and storage capabilities and has revolutionized the world electronics. Digital electronics is the foundation of all modern electronic devices such as cellular phones, MP3 players, laptop computers, digital cameras, high definition televisions, etc.
The major focus of the DE course is to expose students to the design process of combinational and sequential logic design, teamwork, communication methods, engineering standards, and technical documentation.
Utilizing the activityprojectproblembased (APPB) teaching and learning pedagogy, students will analyze, design and build digital electronic circuits. While implementing these designs students will continually hone their interpersonal skills, creative abilities and understanding of the design process.
Digital Electronics ^{TM} (DE) is a high school level course that is appropriate for 10th or 11th grade students interested in electronics. Other than their concurrent enrollment in college preparatory mathematics and science courses, this course assumes no previous knowledge.
Digital Electronics ™ is one of three foundation courses in the Project Lead The Way^{®} high school preengineering program. The course applies and concurrently develops secondary level knowledge and skills in mathematics, science, and technology.
Approved Course Materials and Resources:
Digital Electronics Principles and Applications
*Instructional videos limited to no more than six hours each semester
Course Expectations:
Students will demonstrate:
 an ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering
 an ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data
 an ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs within realistic constraints such as economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health and safety, manufacturability, and sustainability
 an ability to function on multidisciplinary teams
 an ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems
 an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility
 an ability to communicate effectively
 the broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context
 a recognition of the need for, and an ability to engage in lifelong learning
 a knowledge of contemporary issues
 an ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice
Students will read at least 100 pages of technical reading
Sample Course Activities/Projects/Assessments:
 creating schematics using design software
 designing circuits on a breadboard
 team projects
 presentations
 application of algebraic concepts to circuitry
Course Outline:
Unit 1: Fundamentals of Analog and Digital Electronics
(32 Total Days)
../../../../../../Samuel Cox/Samuel Cox/Temporary Internet Files/2007_Curriculum_folders/IED_11_15_2007/Unit_1/Lesson1_1Intro_Design_Process.htmLesson 1.1: Foundations and the Board Game Counter (9 days)
Concepts Addressed in Lesson:
1. Safety is an important concept that must be considered for the safety of the individual, class, and overall environment of the classroom/laboratory.
2. Electricity, even at the nominal levels used in this curriculum, can cause bodily harm or even death.
3. Engineers and technicians use scientific notation, engineering notation, and Systems International (SI) notation to conveniently write very large or very small numbers frequently encountered when working with electronics.
4. Manufacturers of resistors and capacitors use an accepted industry standard to label the nominal value of resistors and capacitors.
5. Soldering is the process of joining two metal surfaces together to form an electrical connection. Soldering is used extensively in the assembly of electronic components.
6. The ability to properly solder electronic components and recognition of improper solder connections is an important skill for engineers and technicians.
Lesson 1.2: Introduction to Analog (11 days)
Concepts Addressed in Lesson:
 Analog and digital signals have different waveforms with distinctive characteristics.
2. Digital signals have two welldefined voltage levels, one for a logic high and one for a logic low.
3. Analog signals have an infinite number of voltage levels that vary continuously over the voltage range for that particular system.
4. The atomic structure of a material determines whether it is a conductor, an insulator, or a semiconductor.
5. An understanding of the basics of electricity requires the understanding of three fundamental concepts of voltage, current, and resistance
6. Engineers and technicians use Circuit Design Software as a tool to verify functionality of their analog and digital designs.
Lesson 1.3: Introduction to Digital (12 days)
Concepts Addressed in Lesson:
 The manufacturer datasheet contains a logic gate’s general description, connection diagram, and function table.
2. Integrated circuits are categorized by their underlying circuitry, scale of integration, and packaging style.
3. TransistorTransistor Logic (TTL) gates are available in a series of subfamilies, each having their own advantages and disadvantages related to speed and power.
4. Logic gates are depicted by their schematic symbol, logic expression, and truth table.
5. The input and output values of combinational and sequential logic function differently.
6. Combinational logic designs implemented with AND gates, OR gates, and INVERTER gates are referred to as AOI designs.
7. The flipflop is the fundamental building block of sequential logic.
Unit 2: Combinational Logic (60 Total Days)
Lesson 2.1: Introduction to AOI Logic (20 days)
Concepts Addressed in Lesson:
 An understanding of the binary number system and its relationship to the decimal number system is essential in the combinational logic design process.
2. The first step in designing a combinational logic circuit is to translate a set of design specifications into a truth table.
3. A truth table describes the behavior of a combinational logic design by listing all possible input combinations and the desired output for each.
4. Logic expressions can be derived from a given truth table; likewise, a truth table can be constructed from a given logic expression.
5. All logic expressions can be expressed in one of two forms: sumofproducts (SOP) or products of sum (POS).
6. All logic expressions, whether simplified or not, can be implemented using AND, OR, & Inverter Gates.
7. There is a formal design process for translating a set of design specifications into a functional combinational logic circuit.
Lesson 2.2: Introduction to NAND and NOR Logic (14 days)
Concepts Addressed in Lesson:
 Karnaugh Mapping is a graphical technique for simplifying logic expressions containing two, three, and four variables.
2. A don’t care condition is a situations where the design specifications “don’t care” what the output is for one or more input conditions. Don’t care conditions in KMaps can lead to significantly simpler logic expressions and circuit implementations.
3. A NAND gate is considered a universal gate because it can be used to implement an AND gate, OR gate, and an inverter gate. Any combinational logic expression can be implemented using only NAND gates.
4. A NOR gate is considered a universal gate because it can be used to implement an AND gate, OR gate, and an inverter gate. Any combinational logic expression can be implemented using only NOR gates.
5. There is a formal design process for translating a set of design specifications into a functional combinational logic circuit implement with NAND or NOR gates.
6. Combinational logic designs implemented with NAND gates or NOR gates will typically required fewer Integrated Circuits (IC) than AOI equivalent implementations.
Lesson 2.3: Date of Birth Design (9 days)
Concepts Addressed in Lesson:
 Sevensegment displays are used to display the digits 09 as well as some alpha characters.
2. The two varieties of sevensegment displays are common cathode and common anode.
3. Any combinational logic expression can be implemented with AOI, NAND, or NOR logic.
4. A formal design process exists for translating a set of design specifications into a functional combinational logic circuit.
Lesson 2.4: Specific Comb Logic Circuits & Misc. Topics (8 days)
Concepts Addressed in Lesson:
 An understanding of the hexadecimal and octal number systems and their relationship to the decimal number system is necessary for comprehension of digital electronics.
2. XOR and XNOR gates can be used to implement combinational logic circuits, but their primary intended purpose is for implementing binary adder circuits.
3. The addition of two binary numbers of any bit length can be accomplished by cascading one halfadder with one or more full adders.
4. Multiplexer/demultiplexer pairs are most frequently used when a single connection must be shared between multiple inputs and multiple outputs.
5. Electronics displays that use multiple sevensegment display utilize demultiplexers to significantly reduce the amount of power required to operate the display.
6. Two’s complement arithmetic is the most commonly used method for handling negative numbers in digital electronics.
Lesson 2.5: Programmable Logic – Combinational (9 days)
Concepts Addressed in Lesson:
 Engineers and technicians use Circuit Design Software to enter and synthesize digital designs into programmable logic devices.
2. Programmable logic devices can be used to implement combinational logic circuits.
3. Circuits implemented with programmable logic devices require significantly less wiring than discrete logic, but they typically require a dedicated printed circuit board to hold the device.
4. Programmable logic devices can be used to implement any combinational logic circuits but are best suited for larger, more complex designs.
Unit 3: Sequential Logic (56 Total Days)
Lesson 3.1: Latches & FlipFlops (6 days)
Concepts Addressed in Lesson:
 The flipflop and transparent latch are logic devices that have the capability to store data and can act as a memory device.
2. Flipflops and transparent latches have both synchronous and asynchronous inputs.
3. Flipflops can be used to design single event detection circuits, data synchronizers, shift registers, and frequency dividers.
Lesson 3.2: Asynchronous Counter (14 days)
Concepts Addressed in Lesson:
 Asynchronous counters, also called ripple counters, are characterized by an external signal clocking the first flipflop. All subsequent flipflips are clocked by the output of the previous flipflop.
2. Asynchronous counters can be implemented using small scale integrated (SSI) and medium scale integrated (MSI) logic gates.
3. Asynchronous counters can be implemented with either D or J/K flipflops.
4. Up counters, down counters, and modulus counters all can be implemented using the asynchronous counter method.
Lesson 3.3: Synchronous Counters (14 days)
Concepts Addressed in Lesson:
 Synchronous counters, also called parallel counters, are characterized by an external signal clocking all flipflops simultaneously.
2. Synchronous counters can be implemented using small scale integrated (SSI) and medium scale integrated (MSI) logic gates.
3. Synchronous counters can be implemented with either D or J/K flipflops.
4. Up counters, down counters, and modulus counters all can be implemented using the synchronous counter method.
Lesson 3.4: Introduction to StateMachine Design (20 days)
Concepts Addressed in Lesson:
 A state machine is a circuit design that sequences through a set of predetermined states controlled by a clock and other input signals.
2. State machines are used to control common everyday devices such as elevator doors, traffic lights, and combinational (electronics) locks.
3. State machines can be implemented in one of two variations: Mealy or Moore.
4. State machines can be implemented using small and medium scale integrated gates and programmable logic devices.
Unit 4: Microcontrollers (29 Total Days)
Lesson 4.1: Introduction to Microcontrollers (9 days)
Concepts Addressed in Lesson:
 Flowcharting is a powerful graphical organizer used by technicians, computer programmers, engineers, and professionals in a variety of roles and responsibilities.
2. Basic programming skills include variable declaration, loops, and debugging.
3. Programming languages have their own grammar, called syntax.
4. Many everyday products use microcontrollers.
5. Variables used in programming are declared and given a size that is expressed in binary.
Lesson 4.2: Microcontrollers – BoeBot (9 days)
Concepts Addressed in Lesson:
 Microcontrollers are used to control many everyday products like robots, garage door openers, traffic lights, and home thermostats.
2. A servo motor is one that delivers continuous motion at various speeds.
3. Microcontrollers can be programmed to sense and respond to outside stimuli
Lesson 4.3: BoeBot Design Projects (11 days)
Concepts Addressed in Lesson:
 Digital devices are only relevant if they can interact with the real world.
2. Digital control devices are increasingly necessary for mechanical systems.
3. Realistic problem solving with a control system requires the ability to interface analog inputs and outputs with a digital device.
4. Microcontrollers are a practical tool for controlling a mechanical system.
Course Curriculum Map:
Unit 1
Fundamentals of Analog and Digital Electronics
32 hours

Unit 2
Combinational Logic
60 hours

Unit 3
Sequential Logic
56 hours

Unit 4
Microcontrollers
29 hours

Lesson Protocol:
 Bell Ringer Activity:Anticipatory Activity or review of previous learning
 Teacher Input
 Teacher Models steps/processes
 Guided Practice:Students apply steps/processes with guidance
 Independent Practice:Students work in teams or independently to complete project
 Closing Activity:summarize learning and final check for understanding